GLOSSARY OF TERMS
A B C D E F G -H
I J K- L M N O P- Q
R- S -T U V W X Y Z
Male reproductive cell; male gamete.
A hydrocarbon compound that generally follows the formula (CH2O)n, where n can vary.
Pairing of homologous chromosomes during prophase I.
- One of four bases found in DNA or RNA.
- A gene that occupy a given locus. 2) One of two or more different forms of
a gene. (i.e. In peas, there is a purple allele and a white allele for flower
- Containing water, such as the aqueous environment of a cell.
- A compound that is capable of accepting a hydrogen ion.
- Containing two rings.
- Structures found in animal cells, composed of an array of microtubules around which the mitotic spindle is organized.
- Location on chromatids where crossing over ocurs.
- Either of the longitudinal subunits produced by chromosomal replication.
- A structure composed of DNA and protein that carries the genetic information of an organism.
- covalent bond (single)
- A bond formed through the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms.
- One of four bases found in DNA or RNA.
- A mating. (i.e. The cross between the round pea plant and the wrinkled pea
plant resulted in all round progeny). Can also be used as a verb to indicate "to
set up a mating." (i.e. Mendel crossed a round pea plant to a wrinkled pea
plant and found that all the progeny had round seeds).
- Deoxyribonucleic acid, the heritable material found in all cells.
- DNA damage repair
- Any of several different processes for restoring the correct base(s) of the original DNA molecule of the organism after they have been incorrectly modified or incorporated.
- DNA replication
- Semi-conservative copying of DNA molecule occurring during interphase of cells.
- An organism with two copies of chromosomes (2n).
- A separation of positive and negative charge.
- Able to produce a phenotype with just one copy of the allele. Compare to
recessive. (i.e. Pea plants with one copy of the dominant purple allele will
have purple flowers, even if a recessive white allele is also present).
- double covalent bond
- A covalent bond formed through the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms.
- Female reproductive cell; female gamete.
- Negatively charged subatomic particle.
- electron shell
- A grouping of electrons in an atom according to energy.
- A measure of the electron-attracting power of an atom.
- electrostatic interaction
- Interaction of two or more charged particles.
- First filial generation; the progeny of the parental generation. The descendents of the F1 generation are the F2 generation.
- Second filial generation; the progeny of the F1 generation.
- Fusion of egg and sperm to create an embryo, which grows into a new individual.
- Haploid (n) reproductive cells such as sperm or egg that unite to form a diploid (2n) zygote. 2) Any reproductive cell, including pollen/sperm and ovule/egg.
- A distinct stretch of DNA that is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity.
- The study of traits that can be passed down from parent to offspring; the study of heredity and variation. Usually restricted to traits that are largely due to inherited genes, but it can be difficult to distinguish the role of genes from the role of the environment.
- Actual physical DNA make up of an organism. 2) The genetic constitution of
an individual, including alleles carried for a particular trait. Compare to
phenotype. (i.e. A pea with a round phenotype could have a genotype of RR or Rr).
- Pertaining to genotype.
- group (periodic table)
- A vertical column of elements in the periodic table.
- One of four bases found in DNA or RNA.
H - I - J - K
- A corkscrew-shaped object.
- The passing down of traits from parent to offspring. Usually restricted to traits that are largely due to inherited genes, but it can be difficult to distinguish the role of genes from the role of the environment.
- An individual that carries two different alleles. Compare to homozygote.
(i.e. The heterozygote has the genotype Rr).
- Having different alleles for a trait. 2) Carrying two different alleles.
Compare to homozygous. (i.e. The heterozygous plant has the genotype Rr).
- A small, positively charged protein involved in DNA packaging.
- homologous chromosomes (homologs)
- Chromosomes that have the same genetic loci and structure and that pair in meiosis I.
- An individual that carries two copies of the same allele. Compare to heterozygote.
(i.e. The dominant homozygote has the genotype RR, while the recessive
homozygote has the genotype rr).
- Having identical alleles for a trait. 2) Carrying two copies of the same
allele. Compare to heterozygous. (i.e. A homozygous plant could have the genotype RR or rr).
- Offspring of parents that differ for at least one trait. (i.e. The Aa hybrid
was the result of the cross AA x aa).
- hydrogen bond
- An intermolecular force of attraction between a highly polar hydrogen to a highly polar lone pair of electrons associated with an F, O, N, or Cl atom.
- hydrogen bond acceptor
- The atom possessing the lone pair of electrons involved in a hydrogen bond.
- hydrogen bond donor
- The hydrogen atom involved in a hydrogen bond.
- A proposed explanation based on available evidence.
- Interval between nuclear divisions, beginning after cytokinesis and lasting until just before the beginning of prophase in the next round of mitosis.
- A charged atom generated when a neutral atom gains or loses one or more electrons.
- ionic bond
- A bond formed through the transfer of electron(s) from one atom to another and the resulting association of the two atoms through electrostatic interactions.
- A strain of true-breeding plants or animals. (i.e. The poodle that won the
dog show was carefully bred from a line of champion poodles).
- A position on a chromosome.
- Polymers of tubulin, involved in the segregation of chromosomes during cell division.
- mitotic (M) phase
- The period in which mitosis, the process of nuclear division, occurs.
- A group of approximately 6.02 x 10^23. For example, a dozen eggs = 12 eggs, and a mole of eggs = 6.02*10^23 eggs.
- Offspring of parents that differ in a single trait. (i.e. The monohybrids
had the genotype Aa). Also used as an adjective to describe something
(i.e. an individual or a cross) that differs for only one trait. (i.e. The
monohybrid cross of AA x aa produce monohybrid progeny with
Compare to dihybrid and trihybrid.
- natural selection
- The process by which traits that are favorable and heritable becomes increasing in numbers in succeeding generations.
- noble gas
- Elements belonging to group VIII (8) of the periodic table and possessing completely filled electron shells.
- nuclear envelope
- Lipid bilayer membrane enclosing the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.
- The repeating unit of DNA packaging, containing histones and the DNA wrapped around them.
- The repeating unit found in DNA and RNA, consisting of three parts: a phosphate group, a sugar, and a base.
- Children; progeny; immediate descendants.
- orbital (atomic)
- A mathematical function describing the regions of an atom where the probability of finding electrons is high.
- The female reproductive cell (i.e. egg, female gamete) of a plant.
- period (periodic table)
- A horizontal row of elements of the periodic table.
- Physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism. 2) An individual's
observable form. Compare to genotype. (i.e. A pea with a round phenotype could
have a genotype of RR or Rr).
- Pertaining to phenotype.
- Chromosome count, 2n if diploid, n if haploid. In humans, 2n = 46 in diploid somatic cells, and n = 23 in haploid germ cells.
- Term to describe molecules possessing dipoles, or separation of charges.
- polar (covalent) bond
- A covalent bond where a separation of charges exists in the bond.
- The male reproductive cell (i.e. sperm, male gamete) of a plant.
- A chain of repeating units.
- Interbreeding organisms inhabiting a specified area.
- An organism that feeds on another living organism (i.e. prey).
- Children; offspring; immediate descendants.
- Positively charged subatomic particle.
- A double-ringed base, (i.e. adenine or guanine).
- A single-ringed base, (i.e. cytosine, thymine, or uracil).
Q - R
- Ribonucleic acid, a molecule structurally similar to DNA that plays several different roles in the cell.
- Only able to produce a phenotype when no dominant allele is present. Compare
to dominant. (i.e. Pea plants with one copy of the dominant purple allele and
one copy of the recessive white allele will have purple flowers). Plants with
two copies of the white allele will have white flowers.
- reciprocal cross
- A cross that differs from another cross only in the sex of the parents.
(i.e. AA male x aa female is the reciprocal cross to aa male
x AA female).
- A sugar molecule that contains five carbons.
- sexual reproduction
- A form of reproduction were a sperm cell and an egg cell are required to produce offspring. Allows offspring to be genetically different from the parents. In contrast to asexual reproduction, where the offspring is genetically identical to the parent (i.e. when part of a plant is broken off to give a new plant).
- Often referred to as an interbreeding group of organism with a set of unifying characteristics.
T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
One of four bases found in DNA.
A morphological characteristic of an organism. 2) Any feature or characteristic of an individual. Human traits include height, hair color, blood type, and susceptibility to disease. For peas, examples include seed color, seed shape and flower color.
triple covalent bond
A covalent bond formed through the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms.
Self-fertilization (or fertilization between two true-breeding individuals)
that results in progeny with the same phenotype as the parent. True-breeding
plants (and animals) are often referred to as "lines." Equivalent to
One of four bases found in RNA.
Electron shell of highest energy (or quantum number).
van der Waals forces (London disperson forces)
Intermolecular forces generated through the interaction of induced or permanent dipoles.
Product of the fusion of gametes: a fertilized egg.